Full methods of geomorphological and neotectonical analysis of the license area

METHODS OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL AND NEOTECTONICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LICENSE AREA

Methods of geomorphological analysis are based on several traditional and innovative scientific developments. The important component of this work is geomorphological mapping on the basis of creating geomorphological and quaternary deposit maps. Methods of geomorphological analysis are correlated with studying geological structures of late Cenozoic especially the Quaternary deposits. Elevation, morphometric peculiarities of rock bedding and other features are considered as different aspects of the single process of the Late Cenozoic sheath formation. Such approach provides creation of such territorial development models in which, in particular, geological and geomorphological documents of exogenesis processes would allow to determine spatial differentiation of the area upon different tectonic modes and to reconstruct sequences of trends and intensities of neotectonical movements for each area, quite homogenous from the tectonic point of view 4. However, morphometric methods of surface analysis play essential role in the geomorphological analysis. Most of basic methods were improved partially and adapted to the current conditions, territory and research scope. All the methods of morphometric analysis were integrated into an updated computing technologies of spatial analysis by means of the analytical geoinformation system device. Updated methods of morphometric analysis appear to be very different in the area of interest;


Methods of geomorphological analysis are based on several traditional and innovative scientific developments. The important component of this work is geomorphological mapping on the basis of creating geomorphological and quaternary deposit maps. Methods of geomorphological analysis are correlated with studying geological structures of late Cenozoic especially the Quaternary deposits. Elevation, morphometric peculiarities of rock bedding and other features are considered as different aspects of the single process of the Late Cenozoic sheath formation. Such approach provides creation of such territorial development models in which, in particular, geological and geomorphological documents of exogenesis processes would allow to determine spatial differentiation of the area upon different tectonic modes and to reconstruct sequences of trends and intensities of neotectonical movements for each area, quite homogenous from the tectonic point of view 4. However, morphometric methods of surface analysis play essential role in the geomorphological analysis. Most of basic methods were improved partially and adapted to the current conditions, territory and research scope. All the methods of morphometric analysis were integrated into an updated computing technologies of spatial analysis by means of the analytical geoinformation system device. Updated methods of morphometric analysis appear to be very different in the area of interest;

The area under investigation was faced with a number of challenges with development history. From the geomorphological point of view, it belongs unanimously to the fluvial-erosional surface type created in the humid climate conditions which plays essential role in the components of erosion processes which is characteristic of the licensed area. In morphometric analysis, the basic ‘rule of thumb’ is, the more intensive tectonic movements are, the more amplitude of their elevations and depressions will be, the clearer they are in surface structure. Optimum methods of geomorphological analysis are structural geomorphological or morphometric methods previously based on the topographic map analysis, is now based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM). These methods were developed enough by V.P. Filosofov who applied them successfully in research works for different kinds of minerals. In the process of analysis, the morphometric maps are created, namely; maps of basin surfaces, erosion depths, river valley depths etc., being a derivative for analytical calculations in order to outline prospective areas for certain kinds of minerals.

The next important component of the methods of geomorphological analysis is calculation of water accumulating models. Its main component is creation of fluvial network in the license area and its surroundings within which water is accumulated. Such maps are created for all the existing water flows taken from the digital elevation model. The water flow order is determined as follows:

The present method of differentiating erosional (fluvial) method is deemed as the Strahler Classification. Due to such approach, the flowing tributary of the lower order does not increase the order downstream. So the map created upon the 1 st order thalweg is almost the same as topographic one but such maps created upon not less than the 3rd order thalwegs would be quite different from the topographic map. Such differences reflect geological structure and allow to determining general elevation features, tectonic mode of the area, and areas with different tectonic modes and borders between them. The abovementioned methodology based on V.P. Filosofov’s approaches is effective for platform plains with large roughness.

A number of dataset were acquired herewith the license area forming the basis of the geomorphological analysis;

  •  Topographical base map with scale of 1:50,000;
  •  The latest data of radar mapping ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (ASTER GDEM 2) being METI and NASA products;
  •  Updated data of 1-3 second radar mapping, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM);
  •  Multi-zonal medium-resolution space images Landsat ETM+ (See Figures:5&6).

All of these resources above are open sourced data from ERS 5 for non-commercial and scientific studies and are freely obtained provided mentioning the product owner. Space image mosaics taken from the Landsat satellite with spatial resolution adjusted to the panchromatic channel of 15 meters is represented as the corresponding graphical supplements with two combinations of spectral ranges.

Main features of space module are set below:
Date of launch: the 15th of April 1999;
Launching platform: Vandenberg Airbase (USA);
Launch vehicle: РН Delta II;
Developer: Lockheed Martin (USA);
Operators: NASA (USA), NOAA (USA) and USGS (USA).

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were created on the basis of radar data of the topographic survey from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission or SRTM v4, in 2008 and was later developed by United States Geological Surveys (USGS) and CGIAR. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) (see Figure 1) is the radar topographic survey of the most part of the Earth except the most northern (>60) and the most southern latitudes (>54) as well as the oceans completed for 11 days in February 2000 by means of special radar system. Two radiolocation sensors SIR-C & X-SAR collected over 12 terabytes of the data. SRTM data renewed to the 4th version is much improved as compared to the previous version. The previous data were processed by using new interpolation algorithms and additional improved DEM.


Due to accuracy and tested resolution power creation of the model by means of the SRTM 4 data allows to interpret information about the elevation and morphometric features in compliance to the scale of 1:50,000.

In the process of ERS data decoding, the following tasks were established:

  •  Creating primary DEM upon ERS data SRTM v4;
  •  Transforming primary DEM to the hydrologically corrected one, taking into account certainty of the modern hydrological network;
  •  Identifying and deleting objects from DEM;
  •  Creating water-collecting model based on the hydrologically correct DEM;
  •  Decoding ERS data with outlining the lineaments which allegedly correspond to the up-to-date earth rifts;
  •  Analyzing extreme points of the fluvial network and detecting the modern neotectonical activation zones which controls them;
  •  Detecting spatial principles of localization of the modern alluvial deposits;
  •  Creating maps of main surfaces which control surface development upon the morphometric parameters;
  •  Outlining prospective areas for localization of fundamental sources and mineral ore occurrence.

All the valuable intermediate transformations obtained by modeling geomorphological conditions of the license area are shown in the graphical supplements (images), while analyzing neotectonical peculiarities of the area, the Filosofov’s methods and methods of geomorphological indicators were mainly considered. All the components of neotectonical peculiarities of the area are calculated upon the structural geomorphological and structural geodynamic spatial digital modeling data. Calculations were made upon the digital models by means of image processing software such as; ESRI ArcInfo Grid, Erdas Imagine, TNT maps, scale 1: 50,000 and resolution power of 15-90 meters. The size of digital cartographical models (matrixes) made up nearly 30,000,000 points. Similarly, all valuable indicators used in assessing neotectonical peculiarities of the area are set as the graphical supplements to the report.